On This Day
"I remember your name perfectly, but I just can't think of your face."
-- William Archibald Spooner [1844-1930] A greeting
This day is named in memory of the Reverend William Archibald Spooner, Warden of New College, Oxford, England. He was born in London on July 22, 1844. His frequent slips of the tongue led to the term "spoonerism." His accidental transpositions gave us "blushing crow" (for crushing blow), "tons of soil" (for sons of toil), "queer old dear" (for dear old queen), "swell foop" (for fell swoop), and many others.
Happy Birthday ......
In 1784, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, German astronomer and mathematician who calculated the path of Halley’s Comet, is born.
In 1849, Emma Lazarus was born. Her poem "Give me your tired, your poor..." is inscribed on the Statue of Liberty.
In 1888, Selman Abraham Waksman, US micro biologist, is born in what is now Ukraine. He won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1952 for his discovery of streptomycin.
In 1892, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian Nazi chief during its annexation by Germany 1938-39, is born. He was executed for war crimes in 1946.
In 1898, birth of Stephen Vincent Benet, US short story writer and poet; best known for his poem on the US Civil War, John Brown’s Body.
In 1913, Licia Albanese, Italian soprano, is born. Best remembered for her roles at New York’s Metropolitan Opera and for her recording of La Boheâme conducted by Arturo Toscanini.
In 1923, Bob Dole, American political leader, was born in Russell, Kansas. While serving in World War II, he was seriously wounded and required several years of convalescence. After obtaining his law degree from Washburn University (1952), he worked as a county attorney. In 1960 he was elected as a Republican to the U.S. House of Representatives and served four terms (1961-69). He was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1968. He was chairman of the Republican National Committee (1971-73), and in 1976 Dole was President Gerald Ford 's running mate. Dole served as majority leader of the Senate (1985-87, 1995-96) and as minority leader (1987-95), gaining a reputation as a pragmatic conservative with an acerbic wit. In 1980 and 1988 Dole ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination. In 1995 he again announced his candidacy for his party's presidential nomination, and he subsequently triumphed in the primaries. In June, 1996, Dole resigned from the Senate in order to devote more time to the presidential race, and in August he chose Jack Kemp as his running mate. He proved unable to reduce President Clinton's significant lead in the popular vote, however, and was soundly defeated in the November elections. [We are left with the question as which was the better man to lead the country?]
In 1947, Danny Glover, actor who became a household name after starring in the blockbuster smash Lethal Weapon, with Mel Gibson, in 1987. Surprisingly, Glover did not express any inclination toward acting until his late 20s. He then decided to take an acting class, and was soon cast in local theatre productions of "Suicide in B Flat" and "Macbeth." After a stint on Broadway in "Master Harolda and the Boys," Glover was cast in the film Places in the Heart (1984). Some of his other impressive film credits include Witness (1985), The Color Purple (1985), Bopha! (1993), Maverick (1994), The Rainmaker (1997), Beloved (1998) and The Royal Tenenbaums in 2001.
In 1955, birth of US actor William Dafoe, who starred in Oscar winning The Piano.
In 1964, David Spade, actor and comedian who stared for seven seasons on the NBC hit sitcom Just Shoot Me (1997-2003). Spade began performing in talent shows in High School, and admits that he borrowed some of his better comedic material from the show he would later star on, "Saturday Night Live." After High School, Spade performed his comedy act on the college circuit and gained the attention of an agent who cast him in Police Academy 4: Citizens on Patrol (1987). In 1990, Spade joined the ensemble cast of SNL as both a writer and a performer. Spade’s comedic talent shined on SNL, and his TV success led to roles in films including Coneheads (1993), P.C.U. (1994), Tommy Boy (1995), Senseless (1998), Lost and Found (1999) and Joe Dirt in 2001. In 2004, he performed at the Ford Theatre in Washington, DC, for President Bush. The Old Kunnel enjoyed his performance as much as the President.
In 2006, the co-creator of Philadelphia's renowned cheesesteak sandwich, Harry Olivieri, died of heart failure in Pomona, N.J., at the age of 90.
On this day...
In 1298, an English victory over Scots at first battle of Falkirk.
In 1691, the Anglo-Dutch army defeats the French at Aghrim in India.
In 1739, the Turks defeat troops of the Holy Roman Empire at Crocyka, Yugoslavia and threaten Belgrade.
In 1793, Scottish fur trader and explorer Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Canadian Pacific coast, becoming the first to cross the North American continent north of Mexico.
In 1812, the Duke of Wellington defeats the French under Marshal Marmont at the battle of Salamanca.
In 1847, Mormons enter Salt Lake City.
In 1861,[Civil War] The House of Representatives passed a resolution saying the Civil War was to preserve the Union rather than to end slavery, a stance that would shift as the conflict continued. [The Senate passed a similar resolution three days later.]
In 1864, Battle of Atlanta continues Confederate General John Bell Hood continues to try to drive General William T. Sherman from the outskirts of Atlanta when he attacks the Yankees on Bald Hill. The attack failed, and Sherman tightened his hold on Atlanta.
Confederate President Jefferson Davis had appointed Hood commander of the Army of Tennessee just four days before the engagement at Atlanta. Davis had been frustrated with the defensive campaign of the previous commander, Joseph Johnston, so he appointed Hood to drive Sherman back North. Hood attacked Peachtree Creek on July 20, but he could not break the Federals.
Two days later, Hood tried again at Bald Hill. The Union force under Sherman consisted of three armies: James McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee, John Schofield’s Army of the Ohio, and George Thomas’ Army of the Cumberland. Thomas’ force pressed on Atlanta from the north, at Peachtree Creek, while McPherson swung to Atlanta’s eastern fringe to cut the Georgia Railroad, which ran to Decatur. Hood struck at McPherson on July 22, but several problems blunted the Confederate attack. The broken, rugged terrain made coordination difficult, and the attack, which had been planned for dawn, did not begin until after noon. Most important, and unbeknownst to Hood, McPherson extended his line east. The Confederates had assembled along a line–which they thought was behind the Union flank–but was now directly in front of fortified Federal soldiers. Hood’s men briefly breached the Union line, but could not hold the position. The day ended without a significant change in the position of the two armies.
For the second time in three days, Hood failed to break the Union hold on Atlanta. His already-outnumbered army fared poorly. He lost more than 5,000 men, while the Union suffered 3,700 casualties. Among them was General McPherson, who had been killed while scouting the lines during the battle. He was one of the most respected and promising commanders in the Union army.
In 1904, first gasoline driven Studebaker car manufactured in South Bend Indiana.
In 1920, Warren G. Harding said "We must stabilize and strive for normalcy."
In 1926, Babe Ruth caught a baseball at Mitchell Field in New York. The ball had been dropped from an airplane flying at 250 feet.
In 1932, Florenz Ziegfeld, US theatrical producer and impresario, dies. He is famed for his Follies, spectacular revues which ran every year from 1907-31.
In 1933, Wiley Post flies solo around the world
American aviator Wiley Post returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York, having flown solo around the world in 7 days, 18 hours, and 49 minutes. He was the first aviator to accomplish the feat.
Post, instantly recognizable by the patch he wore over one eye, began the journey on July 15, flying nonstop to Berlin. After a brief rest, he flew on to the Soviet Union, where he made several stops before returning to North America, with stops in Alaska, Canada, and finally a triumphant landing at his starting point in New York.
Two years earlier, Post had won fame when he successfully flew around the northern part of the earth with aviator Harold Gatty. For his solo around-the-world flight in 1933, he flew a slightly greater distance–15,596 miles–in less time. For both flights, he used the Winnie Mae, a Lockheed Vega monoplane that was equipped with a Sperry automatic pilot and a direction radio for Post’s solo journey. In August 1935, he was attempting to fly across the North Pole to the USSR with American humorist Will Rogers when both men were killed in a crash near Point Barrow, Alaska.
In 1934, bank robber John Dillinger, America's "Public Enemy No 1," is killed in a hail of gunfire by federal authorities outside the Biograph Theater in Chicago's Lincoln Park neighborhood. Two women standing nearby are also wounded. The shooting brings to an end a criminal career that saw Dillinger and his associates steal more than $300,000 from 11 banks and kill seven police officers and three federal agents.
In 1937, the U.S. Senate rejected President Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court.
In 1938, the Daân Chuùng (The Populace), a newspaper of the Communist Party of Indochina, publishes its first issue. The newspaper was an instrument for the party not only to disseminate its policies but also to organise the masses.
World At War
World War II, which had begun in Europe on September 1, 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, ended six years later to the day, September 1, 1945. The final concluding ceremony came the following day, September 2, 1945, with the signing of surrender papers by representatives of Japan, Nazi Germany's Axis partner in the Far East.
Nine Notable Veterans of World War II
THE GREAT BATTLES OF WORLD WAR IIIn 1939, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia appoints first Black woman judge in America - Jane Bolin.
In 1942, British reject U.S. proposal for Allied landing in Europe before end of 1942.
Headline: Deportations from Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka begin
The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto begins, as thousands are rounded up daily and transported to a newly constructed concentration/extermination camp at Treblinka, in Poland.
On July 17, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Nazi SS, arrived at Auschwitz, the concentration camp in eastern Poland, in time to watch the arrival of more than 2,000 Dutch Jews and the gassing of almost 500 of them, mostly the elderly, sick and very young. The next day, Himmler promoted the camp commandant, Rudolph Hoess, to SS major and ordered that the Warsaw ghetto (the Jewish quarter constructed by the Nazis upon the occupation of Poland, enclosed first by barbed wire and then by brick walls), be depopulated–a “total cleansing,” as he described it–and the inhabitants transported to what was to become a second extermination camp constructed at the railway village of Treblinka, 62 miles northeast of Warsaw.
Within the first seven weeks of Himmler’s order, more than 250,000 Jews were taken to Treblinka by rail and gassed to death, marking the largest single act of destruction of any population group, Jewish or non-Jewish, civilian or military, in the war. Upon arrival at “T. II,” as this second camp at Treblinka was called, prisoners were separated by sex, stripped, and marched into what were described as “bathhouses,” but were in fact gas chambers. T. II’s first commandant was Dr. Irmfried Eberl, age 32, the man who had headed up the euthanasia program of 1940 and had much experience with the gassing of victims, especially children. He compelled several hundred Ukrainian and about 1,500 Jewish prisoners to assist him. They removed gold teeth from victims before hauling the bodies to mass graves. Eberl was relieved of his duties for “inefficiency.” It seems that he and his workers could not remove the corpses quickly enough, and panic was occurring within the railway cars of newly arrived prisoners.
By the end of the war, between 700,000 and 900,000 would die at either Treblinka I or II. Hoess was tried and sentenced to death by the Nuremberg Tribunal. He was hanged in 1947.
In 1943, US forces liberate Palermo, Sicily.
In 1944, fifty Greek resistance men simultaneously hanged by Nazis in Athens.
Sicily: Eight American Army enters Palermo.
The World Health Organization constitution composed.
Ninety people were killed when Jewish extremists blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
In 1950, William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canadian Liberal statesman and three-time prime minister, dies.
In 1952, Puerto Rico becomes first independent commonwealth of U.S.
Vice-President Richard M. Nixon chaired a cabinet meeting in Washington, D.C. It was the first time that a Vice-President had carried out the task.
In 1954, President Hoà Chí Minh, in an appeal made after the signing of the Geneva Agreements which sealed the end of the First Indochina War, calls on the entire Vietnamese people to strengthen unity, striving for the country’s reunification.
Vietnamese armed forces declare a cease-fire, ending the nine-year resistance war against French re-occupation and US intervention.
In 1962, Algeria declares independence following a protracted war of secession from France.
In 1963, Profumo scandal at the Old Bailey in London; Minister John Profumo consorting with prostitutes.
In 1966, a committee is established to investigate US war crimes in Vieät Nam.
In 1975, Confederate General, Robert E. Lee, had his U.S. citizenship restored by the U.S. Congress.
In 1972, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) agree on a new free trade area linking the two organisations, effective on January 1, 1973.
In 1978, Vieät Nam and China agree to begin diplomatic negotiations on the issue of ethnic Chinese in Vieät Nam.
In 1983, the World's largest bond crash-Washington Power System defaults on $2 billion.
In 1991, Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, charged she'd been raped by boxer Mike Tyson in an Indianapolis hotel room. Tyson was later convicted of rape and served 3 years in prison.
Police arrested Jeffrey Dahmer after finding the remains of 11 victims in his apartment in Milwaukee. Dahmer confessed to 17 murders and was sentenced to life in prison.
In 1992, Vieät Nam joins the Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN’s, Bali Treaty of Amity and Co-operation and is granted ASEAN observer status at the ASEAN 25th Ministerial Conference in Manila.
In 1993, Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa resigns as president of the Liberal Democratic Party, taking the blame for the party’s worst-ever election performance.
In 1995, Susan Smith was convicted by a jury in Union, S.C., of first-degree murder for drowning here two sons. [She was later sentenced to life in prison and will not be eligible for parole until 2024.]
In 1997, a list of pre-1945 accounts in Swiss banks including assets left by Holocaust victims is advertised in newspapers in 28 countries.
In 1998, Iran tested a medium-range missile, capable of reaching Israel or Saudi Arabia.
In 1999, Japan’s first deadly hijacking occurs when an unemployed man stabs the pilot to death and seizes the controls. The All Nippon Airways flight lands 49 minutes later in Tokyo, the 516 other people aboard are uninjured. The hijacker tells police he wanted to fly a real plane.
In 2008, Estelle Getty died. She was 84.
In 2009, millions of Hindus bathed in India's holy rivers and throngs of gazers across Asia sought vantage points early today to view a rare total solar eclipse. The event, occurring just after sunrise in many places, was the longest solar eclipse of the 21st century, lasting more than 4 minutes in some places in India and China.
In 2016, Gunmen went on a shooting rampage in a shopping mall in the southern German city of Munich, killing and wounding many people, police said.
It was the third major act of violence against civilian targets to take place in Western Europe in eight days. Previous attacks in France and Germany were claimed by the Islamic State militant group.
Thought for the day...
[This is the 07/22/2018 bulletin.]