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Today's quotation...
"Women are like tea bags. They don't know how strong they are until they get into hot water."
-- Eleanor Roosevelt, American author and humanitarian [1884-1962]

Women's Rights Day

On this date in 1848, in Seneca Falls, New Jersey, the first women's rights convention in America adopted the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions that inaugurated the women's suffrage movement.

 Happy Birthday ......
    In 1814, Samuel Colt, U.S. inventor of the revolver that bears his name, born.
    In 1834, Edgar Degas, French impressionist painter and sculptor best known for his portrayals of theatre life and dancers, born.
    In 1846, Charles Edward Pickering, pioneer American spectroscopist.
    In 1865, Charles Horace Mayo, U.S. surgeon and one of the three brothers who founded the Mayo Clinic, born.
    In 1896, A.J. Cronin, English author.
    In 1909, Ethel Merman, American musical comedy star, was born in Astoria, N.Y., originally named Ethel Zimmerman. Merman's theater debut was in Girl Crazy (1930). Noted for her booming voice, she has appeared on Broadway in Annie Get Your Gun, Call Me Madam (also the film version, 1953), and Gypsy. Among her films are Alexander's Ragtime Band (1938) and There's No Business Like Show Business (1954). Miss Merman died in 1984.
    In 1922, George McGovern, U.S. senator from South Dakota who was the Democratic Candidate for President of the United States in 1972. A dominant force on his High School debate team, McGovern knew early on that he was destined to be in politics. In 1943, McGovern was a B-24 pilot in the U.S. Army Air Force, and completed a graduate degree in History after flying his 35 missions. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1956, and appointed director of the Food for Peace Program by President Kennedy. McGovern won his Senate race when he ran in 1962, and was elected chairman of the Democratic reform commission in 1969. McGovern was reelected to the Senate in 1974 and held his seat through 1980.

 On this day...
    In 1545, the pride of King Henry VIII's battle fleet, the Mary Rose, sank in the Solent with the loss of over 700 lives.
    In 1553, King Henry VIII's daughter Mary was proclaimed Queen of England after pretender Lady Jane Grey was deposed.
    In 1588, the Spanish Armada was first sighted off the Cornish coast of England.
    In 1821, George IV of England was crowned king; he refused to allow his estranged queen, Caroline, to attend.
    In 1848, first Women's Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, NY.
    In 1863, [Civil War] Morgan’s raiders defeated at Buffington Island
    Confederate General John Hunt Morgan’s raid into Union-held territory is dealt a serious blow when a large part of his force is captured as they try to escape across the Ohio River at Buffington Island, Ohio. Cut off from the south, Morgan fled north with the remnants of his command and was captured a week later at Salineville, Ohio.
    This was the last and most daring of Morgan’s four raids into Union-held territory. The main purpose of the raid was to take pressure off of Chattanooga, Tennessee, by drawing Union troops away from the army of General William Rosecrans. It began on July 2 at Burkesville, Kentucky, and continued into Indiana. Morgan departed with more than 2,400 troopers, but he split his force on two occasions, and suffered many casualties in skirmishes with Federal detachments.
    Morgan and his forces rode east into Ohio and feigned an advance toward a panicked Cincinnati, but bypassed the city and continued eastward to Pomeroy, Ohio. His men were worn down by the long days in the saddle, and the Yankee pursuit finally caught up at Buffington Island, just outside of Pomeroy. While Morgan made plans to cross the swollen Ohio River, Federal gunboats guarded the fords and Union cavalry attacked the Confederates. In a short time, Morgan lost 800 men, nearly all of who were captured.
    Morgan escaped with 400 of his men, and fled north in search of a more suitable place to cross the river–which they never found. Morgan surrendered on July 26.

    In 1864, the final battle of a Chinese civil war of the Southern Ming dynasty vs Manchu Government in Nanking, China. 100,000 die.
    In 1877, the first Wimbledon tennis final took place; Spencer Gore won.
    In 1880, SF Public Library allows patrons to start borrowing books.
    In 1886, 74 year-old piano virtuoso Franz Liszt gives last performance in Luxemburg. [You may find some Liszt compositions in the Old Kunnel's Jukebox/Nickelodeon
-- Click Here!]
    In 1900, the Paris Metro underground rail system opened. (The Ol'Kunnel judges this subway system the best he's ever experienced.)
    In 1913, in the skies over Seattle, Wash., Milton J. Bryant begins a new form of advertising--skywriting.
    In 1919, peace celebrations all over the world for end of WWI.
    In 1934, Under the command of Lt. Col. H.H. "Hap" Arnold, 10 crews flying Martin B-10s leave Bolling Field, D.C., to prove the feasibility of sending an aerial force to Alaska in an emergency and to provide training for personnel flying across isolated and uninhabited areas. The crews arrive in Fairbanks on July 24.
World At War
    World War II, which had begun in Europe on September 1, 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, ended six years later to the day, September 1, 1945. The final concluding ceremony came the following day, September 2, 1945, with the signing of surrender papers by representatives of Japan, Nazi Germany's Axis partner in the Far East.

Nine Notable Veterans of World War II

    In 1939, Dr. Roy P. Scholz, St. Louis, Missori, became the first surgeon to use fiberglass sutures.
    In 1941, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill introduced his "V for Victory" campaign in World War II. The BBC played the first four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, which matched the dot-dot-dot-dash Morse code for the letter V, before news bulletins.
    In 1943, America bombs Rome
    The United States bombs railway yards in Rome in an attempt to break the will of the Italian people to resist—as Hitler lectures their leader, Benito Mussolini, on how to prosecute the war further.
    On July 16, President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill appealed to the Italian civilian population to reject Mussolini and Hitler and “live for Italy and civilization.” As an “incentive,” American bombers raided the city, destroying its railways. Panic broke out among the Romans. Convinced by Mussolini that the Allies would never bomb the holy city, civilians poured into the Italian capital for safety. The bombing did more than shake their security in the city—it shook their confidence in their leader. The denizens of Rome were not alone in such disillusion. In a meeting in northern Italy, Hitler attempted to revive the flagging spirits of Il Duce, as well as point out his deficiencies as a leader. Afraid that Mussolini, having suffered successive military setbacks, would sue for a separate peace, leaving the Germans alone to battle it out with Allied forces along the Italian peninsula, Hitler decided to meet with his onetime role model to lecture him on the manly art of war. Mussolini remained uncharacteristically silent during the harangue, partly due to his own poor German (he would request a translated synopsis of the meeting later), partly due to his fear of Hitler’s response should he tell the truth—that Italy was beaten and could not continue to fight. Mussolini kept up the charade for his German allies: Italy would press on. But no one believed the brave front anymore. Just a day later, Hitler secretly ordered Field Marshal Erwin Rommel to take command of the occupied Greek Islands, better to “pounce on Italy” if and when Mussolini capitulated to the United States. But within a week, events would take a stunning turn.
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    In 1946, Marilyn Monroe acted in her first screen test.
    In 1949, Laos becomes independent.
    In 1950, the maiden flight of Boeing 707 in Seattle, Washington. It cruises at 600 mph and can carry 219 passengers.
    In 1961, first in-flight movie is shown (on TWA).
    In 1965, Syngman Rhee, Korean statesman and president of the Republic of Korea (1948-60) died. He was 90. Early an advocate of Korean independence, he led a demonstration against the Japanese in 1897 and was condemned to life imprisonment but was released (1904) under an amnesty. Rhee went to the United States, where he studied at Harvard and Princeton (Ph.D., 1910), and after returning to Korea went to Hawaii for a time. In 1919 a group of conspirators for Korean independence made him president of a government in exile, and he never ceased working for the cause. After World War II he became a leader in South Korea under the U.S. occupation, and in 1948 he became first president of the Republic of Korea, which claimed the right to rule over all Korea. When, on July 27, 1953, a truce was reached in the Korean War, Rhee maintained that all Korea should be united. Reelected to his fourth term in 1960, Rhee was accused of rigging the election. Student-led demonstrations protesting the election and government corruption soon led to riots and in May, 1960, Rhee was forced out of office and into exile in Hawaii. [Ah, sweet Mr. Rhee of Life at last I've found you.]
    In 1966, Frank Sinatra, 50, marries Mia Farrow, 21, at Las Vegas, Nevada. (She made him feel so young.)
    In 1969, Apollo 11 and its astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins, went into orbit around the moon.
    In 1974, the House Judiciary Committee recommended that U.S. President Richard Nixon should stand trial in the Senate for any of the five impeachment charges against him.
    In 1975, the Apollo and Soyuz space capsules that were linked in orbit for two days separated.
    In 1979, the Nicaraguan capital of Managua fell to Sandinista guerrillas, two days after President Anastasio Somoza fled the country.
    In 1980, the 22nd Olympics opened in Moscow; more than 40 nations boycotted the games to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
    In 1984, U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro (D-N.Y.) won the Democratic nomination for vice president by acclamation at the party's convention in San Francisco.
    In 1985, Christa McAuliffe of New Hampshire was chosen as the first schoolteacher to ride aboard the space shuttle. (McAuliffe and six other crew members died when the Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff the following year.)
    In 1989, 112 people died when a United Airlines DC-10 crashed while making an emergency landing at Sioux City, Iowa; 184 others survived.
    In 1993 President Clinton announced a compromise allowing homosexuals to serve in the military, but only if they refrained from homosexual activity. The launch of DSCS Phase III satellite into GEO provides first full tive-satellite DSCS III constellation
    In 1994, a bomb ripped apart a Panama commuter plane, killing 21, including 12 Jews, a day after a car bomb destroyed a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing 95 people. Funeral services were held for North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung, who had died July 8 at age 82.
    In 1995, Bob Wallace, San Mateo, Ca., fellow GT NetWork SysOp, joined the Colonel's Bulletin Board System (BBS).
    In 1996, former boxing champion Muhammad Ali lit the flame that opened the 1996 centenary Olympic Games in Atlanta.     In 1997, the Irish Republican Army announced a cease-fire effective on July 20 in its 28-year campaign to end British rule over Northern Ireland.
    In 1998, seeking to break a 16-month deadlock, Israel and the Palestinians held their first high-level talks in months. Hundreds of Serb police battled secessionist guerrillas for control of the central Kosovo town of Orahovac.
    In 2002, ConAgra Beef Co. of Colorado asked Americans to destroy 19 million pounds of hamburger meat because of E. coli concerns.
    In 2014,
James Garner, who was found dead of natural causes at his Los Angeles home, was adept at drama and action. But he was best known for his low-key, wisecracking style, especially on his hit TV series, "Maverick" and "The Rockford Files." He was 89.

 Thought for the day...

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