On This Day
"Short swallow-flights of song, that dip
Their wings in tears, and skim away."
---Alfred, Lord Tennyson In Memoriam 
SWALLOWS RETURN TO CAPISTRANO DAY
March 19 is the legendary date for the swallows to return from Mexico to the old mission at San Juan Capistrano, California. Whenever they fail to arrive on this date, local commentators feel obliged to find an excuse. A favorite is that in olden days they were always on time, but since the San Diego Freeway was built across the path of the migrating swallows, the traffic confuses them.
When The Swallows Come Back to Capistrano
as recorded by the Ink Spots.
When the Swallows return to Capistrano Video: Click Here
Happy Birthday ......
In 1860, William Jennings Bryan, "The Great Commoner" orator/statesman.
In 1891, Earl Warren, (Gov-R-Cal)/14th supreme court chief justice (1954).
In 1894, Comedienne Moms Mabley is born in Brevard, North Carolina. Thirteen of her comedy albums make Billboard's pop album chart.
In 1904, John J Sirica, US federal judge (Watergate hearings).
In 1916, Irving Wallace, author (People's Almanac, The Man) (or 0318).
In 1928, Patrick McGoohan, Astoria NY, actor (#6-Prisoner, Secret Agent).
In 1933, Philip Roth, novelist (Goodbye Columbus, Portnoy's Complaint).
In 1935, Phyllis Newman, Jersey City NJ, actress (Coming of Age, TW3).
In 1937, Ursula Andress, actress who played the first “Bond Girl,” Honey Ryder, in the 1962 premiere 007 film, Dr. No. She also played the role of Vesper Lynd in Casino Royale, a movie that spoofed the popular James Bond spy films. Andress is known for playing the character Madam Malec on the primetime drama "Falcon Crest."
In 1944, Lynda Bird Johnson Robb, LBJ's daughter.
In 1946, Ruth Pointer, singer (Pointer Sisters-I'm So Exicted).
In 1947, Glenn Close, film actress whose first movie role was playing the character of Jenny Fields in 1982’s The World According to Garp. Other films for Close include The Big Chill, Fatal Attraction, Dangerous Liaisons, Air Force One, 102 Dalmations and Le Divorce. Glenn also lent her voice to the character of Kala in the 1999 animated Disney film, Tarzan.
In 1955, Actor Bruce Willis, who got his big break when he was cast opposite Cybill Shepherd in the television series "Moonlighting." Willis has since gone on to enjoy a successful movie career, with roles in the films Die Hard (trilogy), Pulp Fiction, Twelve Monkeys, The Sixth Sense, Unbreakable, Hart's War, Tears of the Sun, and The Whole Ten Yards. In 2000, Bruce garnered an Emmy Award for his guest spot as the father of David Schwimmer's college-age girlfriend on "Friends".
On this day...
In 1497, the Portuguese royal court revokes order to expell Jews thus forced a conversion to Christianity of thousands.
In 1778, the first record of swallows returning to Capistrano.
In 1796, the freedom of the press comes to France.
In 1822, Boston, Mass incorporated.
In 1831, the first U.S. bank robbery--the City Bank of N.Y. robbed of $245,000 by Edward Smith.
In 1859, Faust by Charles Gounod premiers in Paris.
In 1861, the end of the Maori War in New Zealand.
In 1865, [Civil War] Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina
At the Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, Confederate General Joseph Johnston makes a desperate attempt to stop Union General William T. Sherman’s drive through the Carolinas in the Civil War’s last days; however, Johnston’s motleyforce cannot stop the advance of Sherman’s mighty army. Following his famous March to the Sea in late 1864, Sherman paused for a month at Savannah, Georgia. He then turned north into the Carolinas, destroying all that lay in his path in an effort to demoralize the South and hasten the end of the war. Sherman left Savannah with 60,000 men divided into two wings. He captured Columbia, South Carolina, in February and continued towards Goldsboro, North Carolina, where he planned to meet up with another army coming from the coast. Sherman intended to march to Petersburg, Virginia, where he would join General Ulysses S. Grant and crush the army of Robert E. Lee, the largest remaining Confederate force.
Sherman assumed that Rebel forces in the Carolinas were too widely dispersed to offer any significant resistance, but Johnston assembled 17,000 troops and attacked one of Sherman’s wings at Bentonville on March 19. The Confederates initially surprised the Yankees, driving them back before a Union counterattack halted the advance and darkness halted the fighting. The next day, Johnston established a strong defensive position and hoped for a Yankee assault. More Union troops arrived and gave Sherman a nearly three to one advantage over Johnston. When a Union force threatened to cut off the Rebel’s only line of retreat on March 21, Johnston withdrew his army northward.
The Union lost 194 men killed, 1,112 wounded, and 221 missing, while the Confederates lost some 240 killed, 1,700 wounded, and 1,500 missing. About Sherman, Johnston wrote to Lee that, “I can do no more than annoy him.” A month later, Johnston surrendered his army to Sherman.
In 1908, the state of Maryland barred Christian Scientists from practicing without medical diplomas.
In 1910, Orville Wright opens the first Wright Flying School at Montgomery, Ala., on a site that will later become Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB).
In 1911, the first International Women's Day was observed with rallies and parades in Germany, Austria, Denmark and Switzerland.
In 1913, Mussorgsky's "Boris Gudunov" opens at Metropolitan Opera, NY- 39 years after Russian premiere.
In 1916, the first U.S. air combat mission in history saw eight Curtiss Jenny planes of the First Aero Squadron take off from Columbus, N.M., to aid troops that had invaded Mexico in pursuit of the bandit Pancho Villa.
In 1917, US Supreme Court upheld 8 hour work day for the railroads.
In 1918, the 94th Aero Squadron makes the first US operational flights across the front lines in France.
The U.S. Congress passed the Standard Time Act, which authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to establish standard time zones in the United States. [And, so the time saving madness begins.]
In 1920, the United States refused to sign the Versailles Treaty and join the League of Nations, for fear of being drawn into a war if another member country was invaded.
In 1928, Amos and Andy debut on radio.
In 1930, Arthur James Balfour, 1st earl of Balfour died; he was 92. A British statesman, he was the nephew of the 3d marquess of Salisbury. He entered parliament as a Conservative in 1874 and served as secretary to his uncle at the Congress of Berlin (1878). Although associated with the “Fourth Party” of Lord Randolph Churchill, he remained close to Salisbury, serving as president of the Local Government Board (1885-86) and secretary for Scotland (1886). As chief secretary for Ireland (1887-91) Balfour was a resolute opponent of the Home Rule movement and suppressed riots, but he worked for agrarian reform. In 1891 he became Conservative leader in the House of Commons and served (1891-92, 1895-1902) as first lord of the treasury. He succeeded his uncle as prime minister in 1902. His government achieved educational reform (1902), passed the Irish Land Purchase Act (1903), created the Committee of Imperial Defence (1904), and inaugurated the Franco-British Entente (1904). However, the Conservative party split over tariff protection advocated by Joseph Chamberlain. Balfour resigned in 1905, and his party was overwhelmingly defeated in the 1906 election. He continued as leader of the Conservatives during the disputes over the 1909 budget and the reform of the House of Lords but resigned in 1911. Balfour was first lord of the admiralty (1915-16) in Herbert Asquith's coalition government and became (1916) foreign secretary under David Lloyd George. In this capacity he issued the Balfour Declaration (1917), pledging British support to the Zionist hope for a Jewish national home in Palestine, with the proviso that the rights of non-Jewish communities in Palestine would be respected. He attended the Versailles peace conference and, as lord president of the council (1919-22), represented Britain at the first meeting of the League of Nations in 1920 and at the Washington Conference on limiting naval armaments in 1921-22. Created earl of Balfour in 1922, he was again lord president of the council (1925-29). Balfour was a brilliant intellectual and an effective public official, devoted to the cause of international peace. His philosophical writings, which explore the problems of modern religion, include The Foundations of Belief (1900), Theism and Humanism (1915), Theism and Thought (1923), and Opinions and Arguments (1927).
In 1931, in an effort to ease the hard times of the Great Depression, the Nevada Legislature voted to legalize gambling.[No work, no money, and no food but, enough to gamble away. Truely a black day for man.]
In 1932, Australia's Sydney Harbour Bridge was officially opened.
In 1938, the Toronto Maple Leafs scored 8 goals in 5 minutes.
World At War
World War II, which had begun in Europe on September 1, 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, ended six years later to the day, September 1, 1945. The final concluding ceremony came the following day, September 2, 1945, with the signing of surrender papers by representatives of Japan, Nazi Germany's Axis partner in the Far East.
Nine Notable Veterans of World War II
THE GREAT BATTLES OF WORLD WAR IIIn 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders all men between the ages of 45 and 64 to register for non-military duty.
In 1943, Lt. Gen. H.H. Arnold is promoted to four-star rank, a first for the Army Air Forces.
In 1944, under pressure from Hitler, Hungary allowed German troops to cross the border into the country.
The commander of the German Home Army, Gen. Friedrich Fromm, is shot by a firing squad for his part in the July plot to assassinate the Fuhrer. The fact that Fromm’s participation was half-hearted did not save him.
By 1944, many high-ranking German officials had made up their minds that Hitler must die. He was leading Germany in a suicidal war on two fronts, and they believed that assassination was the only way to stop him. According to the plan, coup d’etat would follow the assassination, and a new government in Berlin would save Germany from complete destruction at the hands of the Allies. All did not go according to plan, however. Col. Claus von Stauffenberg was given the task of planting a bomb during a conference that was to be held at Hitler’s holiday retreat, Berchtesgaden (but was later moved to Hitler’s headquarters at Rastenburg). Stauffenberg was chief of staff to Gen. Friedrich Fromm. Fromm, chief of the Home Army (composed of reservists who remained behind the front lines to preserve order at home), was inclined to the conspirators’ plot, but agreed to cooperate actively in the coup only if the assassination was successful. It wasn't.
In 1945, about 800 people were killed when kamikaze planes attacked the U.S. carrier Franklin off Japan; the ship, however, was saved.
Headline: General Fromm executed for plot against Hitler
The commander of the German Home Army, Gen. Friedrich Fromm, is shot by a firing squad for his part in the July plot to assassinate the Fuhrer. The fact that Fromm’s participation was half-hearted did not save him.
By 1944, many high-ranking German officials had made up their minds that Hitler must die. He was leading Germany in a suicidal war on two fronts, and they believed that assassination was the only way to stop him. According to the plan, coup d’etat would follow the assassination, and a new government in Berlin would save Germany from complete destruction at the hands of the Allies. All did not go according to plan, however. Col. Claus von Stauffenberg was given the task of planting a bomb during a conference that was to be held at Hitler’s holiday retreat, Berchtesgaden (but was later moved to Hitler’s headquarters at Rastenburg). Stauffenberg was chief of staff to Gen. Friedrich Fromm. Fromm, chief of the Home Army (composed of reservists who remained behind the front lines to preserve order at home), was inclined to the conspirators’ plot, but agreed to cooperate actively in the coup only if the assassination was successful.
On the night of July 20, 1944, Stauffenberg planted an explosive-filled briefcase under a table in the conference room at Rastenburg. Hitler was studying a map of the Eastern Front as Colonel Heinz Brandt, trying to get a better look at the map, moved the briefcase out of place, farther away from where the Fuhrer was standing. At 12:42 p.m. the bomb went off. When the smoke cleared, Hitler was wounded, charred, and even suffered the temporary paralysis of one arm—but was very much alive.
Meanwhile, Stauffenberg had made his way to Berlin to meet with his co-conspirators to carry out Operation Valkyrie, the overthrow of the central government. Once in the capital, General Fromm, who had been informed by phone that Hitler was wounded but still alive, ordered Stauffenberg and his men arrested, but Fromm was located and locked in an office by Nazi police. Stauffenberg and Gen. Friedrich Olbricht began issuing orders for the commandeering of various government buildings. Then the news came through from Herman Goering that Hitler was alive. Fromm, released from confinement by officers still loyal to Hitler, and anxious to have his own association with the conspirators covered up quickly, ordered the conspirators, including two Stauffenberg aides, shot for high treason that same day. (Gen. Ludwig Beck, one of the conspiracy leaders and an older man, was allowed the “dignity” of committing suicide.)
Fromm’s last-ditch effort to distance himself from the plot failed. Within the next few days, on order of Heinrich Himmler, who was now the new head of the Home Army, Fromm was arrested. In February 1945, he was tried before the People’s Court and denigrated for his cowardice in refusing to stand up to the plotters. But because he went so far as to execute Stauffenberg and his partners on the night of July 20, he was spared the worst punishment afforded convicted conspirators—strangulation on a meat hook. He was shot by a firing squad on March 19.
U.S.: OPA freezes price of clothing.
In 1950, Edgar Rice Burroughs, American novelist, died. Famed for the "Tarzan" stories. (The Ol'Kunnel remembers reading in "Tarzan and The Apes" at the tender age of 6 with his mother.)
In 1953, the Academy Awards ceremony was televised for the first time; "The Greatest Show on Earth" was named best picture of 1952.
Tennessee Williams' "Camino Real" premiered in New York City.
In 1963, in Costa Rica, President John F. Kennedy and six Latin American presidents pledged to fight Communism.
In 1964, the Great Saint Bernard Tunnel under the Alps between Switzerland and Italy was opened to traffic.
In 1970, Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry makes the first successful powered flight of the Martin Marietta X-24A lifting-body research aircraft over Edwards AFB.
In 1971, No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "Me and Bobby McGee," Janis Joplin. The song is the second posthumous No. 1 song of the rock era, reaching the top of the charts almost six months after Joplin's death.
In 1976, Buckingham Palace announced the separation of Princess Margaret and her husband, the Earl of Snowdon, after 16 years of marriage.
In 1977, the last episode of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" aired.
In 1979, the U.S. House of Representatives began televising its day-to-day business.
In 1982, an Argentine scrap metal dealer landed on South Georgia and planted an Argentinian flag. The situation escalated and eventually led to the Falklands war with Britain.
In 1985, in a legislative victory for President Reagan, the Senate voted, 55-45, to authorize production of the MX missile.
In 1987, television evangelist Jim Bakker resigns from the PTL following a sex scandal that involved himself and his secretary, Jessica Hahn.
In 1988, two British soldiers who drove into a Republican area of Belfast during a funeral procession, were seized and killed.
In 1989, Bell pilot Dorman Canon and Boeing pilot Dick Balzer make the first flight of the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey at Bell Helicopter Textron's Flight Research Center in Arlington, Texas.
Alfredo Cristiani of the right-wing ARENA party was elected president of El Salvador, defeating Fidel Chavez Mena of the Christian Democratic Party.
In 1990, Latvia's political opposition claimed victory in the republic's first free elections in 50 years, and reformers also claimed victories in crucial runoffs held in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine.
The first world ice hockey tournament for women was held in Ottawa.
In 1991, Brett Hull, of the St. Louis Blues, became the third National Hockey League (NHL) player to score 80 goals in a season.
Khaleda Zia became the first woman prime minister of Bangladesh.
In 1992, Buckingham Palace announced that Prince Andrew and his wife, the duchess of York, were separating.
In 1993, Justice Byron White, the lone remaining member of the U.S. Supreme Court appointed by a Democrat, announced he would retire, opening the way for President Bill Clinton to make his first high judicial nomination.
A high school in the Los Angeles suburb of Lakewood, Calif., was rocked by the arrests of eight youths, allegedly members of a gang that raped and molested girls as part of a game.
Federal bankruptcy judge confirmed Abraham Hirschfeld, described by his own staff as a nut, as the buyer of the New York Post.
In 1994, talks between North Korea and South Korea collapsed, imperiling a U.S.-brokered deal to resolve the North Korean nuclear dispute.
The largest omelet in history was made with 160,000 eggs in Yokohama, Japan. [Under supervision by the 'Iron Chef"?]
In 1995, Roni Pfaff and Thomas Reed, both of Hanover, Pa., joined the Colonel's Bulletin Board System. Welcome to yous. Palestinian gunmen opened fire on a bus carrying Jewish settlers, killing two people. After a 21-month hiatus, Michael Jordan returned to professional basketball with his former team, the Chicago Bulls.
In 1996, Sarajevo became a united city again after four years when Moslem-Croat authorities took control of the last district held by Serbs.
In 1997, Willem de Kooning, a founder of the Abstract Expressionist school that transformed American art in the 1940s, died.
A federal judge in Phoenix began sentencing 10 members of a paramilitary group to prison after they pleaded guilty to various counts, including conspiracy to make and possess destructive devices.
President Bill Clinton nominated acting CIA director George Tenet to head the agency.
In 1998, Completing baseball's transformation from family ownership to corporate control, Rupert Murdoch's Fox Group won approval to buy the Los Angeles Dodgers for a record $350 million.
The World Health Organization warned of tuberculosis epidemic that could kill 70 million people in next two decades.
In 1999, after assurances of a fair trial from Saudi King Fahd and South African President Nelson Mandela, Libya agreed to hand over the two Lockerbie suspects to Scottish justice before April 6, 1999.
Fifty-three people were killed and dozens were injured when a bomb exploded in a market place in southern Russia.
In 2000, Vector Data Systems conducted a simulation of the 1993 Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas. The simulation showed that the government had not fired first.
In 2001, California officials declared a power alert and ordered the first of two days of rolling blackouts.
In 2002, Operation Anaconda, the largest U.S.-led ground offensive since the Gulf War, ended in eastern Afghanistan. During the operation, which began on March 2, it was reported that at least 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters were killed. Eleven allied troops were killed during the same operation.
Actor Ben Kingsley was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace.
In 2003, the U.S.-led military offensive aimed at removing Saddam Hussein from power invaded Iraq with a nighttime assault of about 40 Tomahawk cruise missiles fired at Baghdad.
The U.S. Senate rejected a proposal supported by the Bush administration to allow drilling for oil in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge.
Mahmoud Abbas accepted the position of Palestinian Prime minister.
In 2004, on the first anniversary of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, officials said 571 U.S. military personnel had been killed.
In 2005, Pakistan was reported to have successfully tested a nuclear-capable missile with a range of 1,250 miles.
A survey showed that Dallas had the highest crime rate in 2004 among U.S. cities with more than 1 million residents.
John DeLorean, an innovative auto industry executive and founder of the DeLorean Motor Company, dies at the age of 80 in New Jersey. In the early 1980s, the DeLorean Motor Company produced just one model, the DMC-12, a sleek sports car with gull-wing doors that opened upward, before going bankrupt. John DeLorean was charged with drug trafficking in an effort to raise funds for his struggling company. Approximately 9,000 DMC-12s in total were produced. The car later became a collector’s item and received a big publicity boost when it was featured as a time-travel machine in the “Back to the Future” movies starring Michael J. Fox.
In 2011, U.S. and European nations pounded Moammar Gadhafi's forces and air defenses with cruise missiles and air strikes, launching the broadest international military effort since the Iraq war in support of an uprising that had seemed on the verge of defeat.
Thought for the day...
[This is the 03/19/2018 bulletin.]
Please Use The Teleporter To Find Your Way Around...