On this day...
In 1306, Robert the Bruce was crowned Robert I of Scotland at Scone. He led the forces that freed Scotland from English rule in 1328.
In 1581, the last New Year's Day in European Catholic countries as the Gregorian calendar moves it to Jan 1st, 1582.
In 1634, Maryland founded as a Catholic colony.
In 1655, Christian Huygens discovers Titan, (Saturn's largest satellite).
In 1751, the last New Year's Day in England as British finally accept Gregorian calendar and the New Year starts Jan 1.
In 1776, Gen. George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, was awarded the first Congressional Gold Medal by the Continental Congress.
In 1802, Dr. James Smith, Baltimore, Maryland, gave free vaccines to poor.
In 1807, the slave trade in England was abolished. (This shows a dichotomy of politics in that England supported the South in the Civil War.)
In 1821, Greece gains its independence.
In 1833, Edmund Kean's last performance; collapses onstage at Covent Garden playing "Othello."
In 1857, Frederick Laggenheim takes the first photograph of a solar eclipse.
In 1865, [Civil War] Battle of Fort Stedman, Virginia
Confederate General Robert E. Lee makes Fort Stedman his last attack of the war in a desperate attempt to break out of Petersburg, Virginia. The attack failed, and within a week Lee was evacuating his positions around Petersburg.
For nine months, Petersburg was under siege by the Army of the Potomac and the overall Union commander, General Ulysses S. Grant. The two great armies had fought a bloody campaign in the spring of 1864, and then settled into trenches that eventually stretched for50 miles around Petersburg and the Confederate capital of Richmond. Lee could not win this war of attrition, but his men held out through the winter of 1864 to 1865. Now, Lee realized the growing Yankee army could overwhelm his diminishing force when the spring brought better weather for an assault. He ordered General John B. Gordon to find a weak point in the Federal defenses and attack.
Gordon selected Fort Stedman, an earthen redoubt with a moat and 9-foot walls. Although imposing, Gordon believed it offered the greatest chance for success since it was located just 150 yards from the Confederate lines–the narrowest gap along the entire front. Early in the morning ofMarch 25, some 11,000 Rebels hurled themselves at the Union lines. They overwhelmed the surprised Yankeesat Fort Stedman and captured 1,000 yards of trenches. After daylight, however, the Confederate momentum waned. Gordon’s men took up defensive positions, and Union reinforcements arrived to turn the tide. The Rebels were unable to hold the captured ground, andwere driven back to their original position.
The Union lost around 1,000 men killed, wounded, and captured, whileLee lost probably three times that number, including some 1,500 captured during the retreat. Already outnumbered, these loses were more than Lee’s army could bear. Lee wrote to Confederate President Jefferson Davis that it would be impossible to maintain the Petersburg line much longer. On March 29, Grant began his offensive, and Petersburg fell on April 3. Two weeks after the Battle of Fort Stedman, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House,Virginia.
In 1894, Jacob S. Coxey began leading an "army" of unemployed from Massillon, Ohio, to Washington D.C., to demand help from the federal government.
In 1900, Socialist Party formed in Indianapolis, Indiana.
In 1901, the Mercedes is introduced by Daimler at the five-day "Week of Nice" in Nice, France.
In 1911, New York's worst industrial fire swept through a factory owned by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, killing 146 immigrant women.
In 1915, the first modern submarine disaster in history occurs when a U.S. F-4 sinks off the Hawaiian coast. Twenty-one people are killed.
In 1918, French composer Claude Debussy died in Paris. (Listen to Debussy's immortal Claire de Lune. Click Here!)
In 1924, Greece proclaimed a Republic.
In 1936, Britain signs naval treaty with U.S. and France.
In 1947, a coal mine explosion in Centralia, Illinois, claimed 111 lives.
|World At War
THE GREAT BATTLES OF WORLD WAR II
World War II, which had begun in Europe on September 1, 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, ended six years later to the day, September 1, 1945. The final concluding ceremony came the following day, September 2, 1945, with the signing of surrender papers by representatives of Japan, Nazi Germany's Axis partner in the Far East.
Nine Notable Veterans of World War II
In 1940, U.S. to give France and Britain unhindered access to American warplanes.
In 1941, Pennsylvania: C.I.O. starts strike at Bethel hem Steel Co.
Headline: Yugoslavia joins the Axis
Yugoslavia, despite an early declaration of neutrality, signs the Tripartite Pact, forming an alliance with Axis powers Germany, Italy, and Japan.
A unified nation of Yugoslavia, an uneasy federation of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, was a response to the collapse of the Ottoman and Hapsburg empires at the close of World War I, both of which had previously contained parts of what became Yugoslavia. A constitutional monarchy, Yugoslavia built friendships with France and Czechoslovakia during the years between the world wars. With the outbreak of World War II, and the Anschluss (“union”) between Austria and Germany, pressure was placed on Yugoslavia to more closely ally itself Germany, despite Yugoslavia’s declared neutrality. But fear of an invasion like that suffered by France pushed Yugoslavia into signing a “Friendship Treaty”—something short of a formal political alliance—on December 11, 1940.
With the war spreading to the Balkans after the invasion of Greece by Italy, it was important to Hitler that the Axis powers have an ally in the region that would act as a bulwark against Allied encroachment on Axis territory. Meeting on February 14, 1941, Adolf Hitler proved unable to persuade Yugoslav Prime Minister Dragisa Cvetkovic to formally join the Axis. The next day, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill contacted the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul, in an effort to encourage him to remain firm in resisting further German blandishments. It was essential to the Allies that Yugoslavia cooperate with Anglo-Greek forces in fending off an Axis conquest of Greece.
But with King Boris of Bulgaria caving into Germany, Prince Paul felt the heat of the Nazis, and on March 20 he asked the Yugoslav Cabinet for their cooperation in allowing the Germans access to Greece through Yugoslavia. The Cabinet balked, and four ministers resigned in protest at the suggestion. This gesture failed to prevent Prime Minister Cvetkovic from finally signing the Tripartite Pact in Vienna on March 25, 1941.
Within two days, the Cvetkovic government was overthrown by a unified front of peasants, the church, unions, and the military—an angry response to the alliance with Germany. Prince Paul was thrown from his throne in favor of his son, King Peter, only 17 years old. The new government, led by Air Force Gen. Dusan Simovic, immediately renounced the Tripartite Pact. In less than two weeks, Germany invaded the nation and occupied it by force.
In 1943, The B-24 Liberator bomber was first included in the United States military in 1939. They were designed to have an increased lifting power and a greater operational range than the B-17 Flying Fortress. Design modifications on the original B-24s included power turrets added to the B-24C model, turbo charged engines with an even greater range added to the B-24D model, and an additional gun turret added to the B-24G, H, and J models. The Liberator series was the most heavily produced of any type in American history; more than nineteen thousand were built by May 1945. Check out more information on the B-24 in Hangar 18.
[National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution]
John D. Rockefeller presents a check for $8.5 million to the United Nations for the purchase of land to build the U.N. center upon.
In 1949, Laurence Olivier's "Hamlet" won five Academy Awards, becoming the first British film to win Hollywood's top prize.
In 1951, Purcell and Ewen detect 21-cm radiation at Harvard physics laboratory.
In 1953, U.S. medical researcher Dr. Jonas Salk announced on a national radio show that he had successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis, the virus that causes the crippling disease of polio.
In 1954, RCA manufactures the first COLOR television set.
In 1955, East Germany granted full sovereignty by occupying power, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
In 1957, the Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community.
In 1960, first guided missile launched from nuclear powered submarine (Halibut).
In 1965, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. led 25,000 marchers to the state capitol in Montgomery, Ala., to protest the denial of voting rights to blacks.
In 1966, the United States Supreme Court rules that the "poll tax," a tax that is levied on an individual as a prerequisite for voting, is unconstitutional.
In 1968, F-111s fly their first combat mission against military targets in North Vietname.
The 58th and final episode of "The Monkees" TV show is aired. The group disbands in 1969 and re-forms in 1986 without Michael Nesmith.
In 1970,the Concorde makes its first supersonic flight.
In 1971, East Pakistan achieved independence as Bangladesh.
In 1973, No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "Killing Me Softly with His Song," Roberta Flack. The song wins Grammys for Flack as Best Female Pop Vocal and Record of the Year and earns Song of the Year Grammys for writers Norman Gimbel and Charles Fox.
In 1975, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June.
The city of Hue in South Vietnam fell to the North Vietnamese army.
In 1979, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty at the White House, ending 30 years of hostilities.
In 1982, Wayne Gretzky becomes the first player in NHL history to score 200 points in a season.
In 1988, Robert Chambers Jr. pleads guilty to first-degree manslaughter in the death of 18 year-old Jennifer Levin in what came to be known as the "preppy murder case."
In 1989, in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska's chief environmental officer, Dennis Kelso, criticized cleanup efforts as too slow.
In Paris, the Louvre reopened with I.M. Pei's new courtyard pyramid.
In 1990, 87 people, most of them Honduran and Dominican immigrants, were killed when fire raced through an illegal social club in New York City.
Estonia voted for independence from the Soviet Union.
In 1991, "Dances With Wolves" won seven Oscars, including best picture, at the 63rd annual Academy Awards.
Theme: Dances With Wolves
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein launched a major counter-offensive to recapture key towns from Kurds in northern Iraq.
The Pakistani hijackers of a Singapore Airlines jet were killed by government commandos in Singapore; the passengers and crew members were safe.
In 1992, Soviet cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev returned to Earth after spending 10 months aboard the orbiting Mir space station.
Former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson was sentenced to six years in prison for raping a teenage beauty pageant contestant.
In 1993, President de Klerk admitted that South Africa had built six nuclear bombs, but said that they had since been dismantled.
A frustrated taxpayer blasted his way into the IRS state headquarters in Sacramento, Calif., taking several workers hostage before a police SWAT team killed him.
In 1994, American troops completed their withdrawal from Somalia.
In 1995, Jason Cary, Hanover, Pa., and Nathan Ritter and Justin Herren, both of Littlestown, Pa., joined the Colonel's Bulletin Board System (BBS). Welcome all!
Two Americans who had strayed across the Kuwaiti
border into Iraq were sentenced to eight years in prison. However, David Daliberti and William Barloon were released by Iraq the following July.
Mike Tyson was released from the Indiana Youth Center after serving three years for the 1992 rape of Desiree Washington, a beauty pageant contestant.
In 1996, Abel Goodman, the world's first patient to receive a permanent electric heart, died in Britain.
An 81-day standoff by the antigovernment Freemen began at a ranch near Jordan, Montana.
The U.S. issued a newly redesigned $100 bill for circulation.
Republican presidential hopeful Bob Dole won the California GOP primary and enough delegates for a first-ballot nomination.
In 1998, shaken by horror stories from the worst genocide since World War II, President Clinton, the first U.S. president to visit South Africa grimly acknowledged, that "we did not act quickly enough" to stop the slaughter of up to 1 million Rwandans four years earlier.
The FCC netted $578.6 million at auction for licenses for new wireless technology.
A cancer patient was the first known to die under Oregon's doctor-assisted suicide law.
Quinn Pletcher was found guilty on charges of extortion. He had threatened to kill Bill Gates unless he was paid $5 million.
In 1999, Cal Ripken, Sr., whose contributions to the Baltimore Orioles extended well beyond fathering and tutoring of one of the best players in the history of the franchise, died. He was 63. Cal Ripken, Sr., spent 36 years in the Orioles organization as a player, scout, coach and manager. He also found time to raise a family that included Cal Ripken Jr., who joined the Orioles in 1982 and set baseball's iron-man record, and infielder Bill Ripken, who also played in Baltimore.
NATO aircraft and missiles blasted targets in Yugoslavia for a second night, directing much of their fire on Kosovo, where fighting raged between Serbs and ethnic Albanians. Alexei Yagudin won the men's title for the second time at the World Figure Skating Championships held in Helsinki, Finland.
In 2000, U.S. consular officials arrived in the Libyan capital Tripoli in the first such visit for 20 years.
Acting Russian President Vladimir Putin was elected president by a more than 20-percent margin.
In 2001, Gladiator, a high-tech action film, was named best picture at the annual awards ceremony of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Russell Crowe, who portrayed a Roman general who became a slave and then a gladiator, was named best actor.
In 2002, China launches its third unmanned spacecraft, Shenzhou III. The craft is boosted into orbit from the Jiuquan launch center in the northwestern province of Gansu aboard a Long March II-F rocket. China plans manned spaceflights by 2005 and hopes to put a man on the Moon.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) dismissed complaints against Walt Disney Co.'s ABC network broadcast of a Victoria's Secret fashion show in November 2001.
In 2003, British forces secure the port city of Umm Qasr; opening a key route for humanitarian supplies.
Fierce hand-to-hand combat with bayonets broke out between Iraqi citizens and Saddam Fedayeen in the southern city of Basra. Meanwhile, more than 1,000 soldiers parachuted into northern Iraq seeking to unite the anti-Saddam Kurds.
In 2004, the U.S. Senate voted (61-38) on the Unborn Victims of Violence Act (H.R. 1997) to make it a separate crime to harm a fetus during the commission of a violent federal crime.
In 2005, Peter B. Teets, acting Secretary of the Air Force, resigns ... Had served as undersecretary of the Air force, director of the NRO, and DOD executive agent for space since late 2001.
The family of Terri Schiavo said no more federal appeals on behalf of the brain-damaged Florida woman were planned after a judge rejected an emergency plea to have her feeding tube reinserted. The battle had reached the White House and the U.S. Supreme Court.
In 2006, Singer Buck Owens, the flashy rhinestone cowboy who shaped the sound of country music with hits like Act Naturally and brought the genre to TV on the long-running Hee Haw, died. He was 76.
Thought for the day...
[This is the 03/25/2019 bulletin.]